Labor laws are primarily governed by the Labor Code of the Philippines (P.D. 442) and subsequently reinforced by the 1987 Philippine Constitution. In addition thereto, there are special laws, implementing rules, regulations, and jurisprudence, which likewise serve as the legal framework for all incidents of employment.[1]

In general, labor laws are divided into two main categories: (a) labor standards and (b) labor relations.[2]

Labor standards refer to the legally prescribed minimum requirements concerning terms and conditions of employment, wages, monetary and welfare benefits, as well as occupational, safetery, and health standards.[3]

Labor relations pertain to the legal framework governing the individual and collective bargaining or interaction between employers and employees, including their attendant rights and duties.[4]

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[1] Cesar Alvero Azucena, Jr., The Labor Code of the with Comments and Cases, 2013 ed., Rex Bookstore.

[2] See LABOR CODE’s structure.

[3] Materinity Children’s Hospital v. The Honorable Secretary of Labor and the Regional Director of Labor, Region X, G.R. No. 78909, 30 June 1989.

[4] Id at 1.