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  • To be valid, the authorized cause of redundancy should comply with prescribed standards.

Legal basis

The legal basis is the P.D. 442, otherwise known as the Labor Code, Supreme Court Decisions, and DOLE Regulations.

Standards have been set or prescribed for each authorized cause through Supreme Court Decisions and DOLE regulations, such as Department Order No. 147, series of 2015.

Standards for Redundancy

The standards are:

1. There must be superfluous positions or services of employees;

2. The positions or services are in excess of what is reasonably demanded by the actual requirements of the enterprise to operate in an economical and efficient manner;

3. There must be good faith in abolishing redundant positions;

4. There must be fair and reasonable criteria in selecting the employees to be terminated; and,

5. There must be an adequate proof of such redundancy such as but not limited to the new staffing pattern, feasibility studies/proposal, on the viability of the newly created positions, job description and the approval by the management of the restructuring.


  • 1987 Constitution
  • Presidential Decree No. 442, a.k.a. Labor Code
  • DOLE Department Order No. 147, Series of 2015
  • Jurisprudence or Supreme Court Decisions
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